Whenever military operations are non-linear, dispersed, and decentralized, swarming is an effective tactic….Swarming occurs when several units conduct a convergent attack on a target from multiple axes. Attacks can be either long range fires or close range fire and hit-and-run attacks. Swarming can be pre-planned  or opportunistic. Swarming usually involves pulsing where units converge rapidly on a target, attack and then re-disperse.”

When a predator strikes a school of fish, the group is capable of scattering in patterns that make it almost impossible to track any individual. It might explode in a flash, create a kind of moving bubble around the predator, or fracture into multiple blobs, before coming back together and swimming away.”